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Capitol Reef National Park,Utah

It surrounds a long wrinkle in the earth known as the Waterpocket Fold, with layers of golden sandstone, canyons and striking rock formations

Capitol Reef National Park,Utah
FORDF250HDXLT, Apr 10, 2017
      Capitol Reef National Park protects a rich background of American Indian habitation throughout the Colorado Plateau. Archeologists have discovered information about the indigenous people who lived in the region for nearly 10,000 years, relying on radio-carbon methods and oral traditions from tribal communities.

      left: Desert Side-notched Red Chert; right: Rose Spring Corner-notched


      The earliest records of Paleo-Indians in Utah date back to 12,000 years ago. Archeologists believe these people arrived during the Pleistoscene (last Ice Age) by the Bering Land Bridge and were the first North Americans. Sites from this era are extremely rare and fragile. Few artifacts remain, making their lifestyle difficult to interpret and understand. However, archeologists suggest that Paleo-Indians did not build homes but rather used rock shelters and caves. These people used projectile points called Clovis and Folsom to hunt small animals and megafauna, such as mammoths. When megafauna became extinct due to climate change, Paleo-Indians adapted to an Archaic lifestyle. Archeologists suspect that Paleo-Indians migrated through the Waterpocket Fold but have found no Paleo artifacts to date.

      Bottom of a woven basket


      The Archaic Period is defined by a nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle that was adapted to climate change. Desert Archaic Indians lived from 8,000-1,600 years ago and migrated depending on the availability of resources. They hunted herds of mammals using a lightweight, spear-throwing stick called an Atlatl. Archaic Indians relied on plants for food, and used them to make baskets, clothing, and medicine. They used stones to make tools and wove nets to trap animals. Desert people ground seeds and nuts with a metate, or slab of stone, and a mano, smaller hand-held stone, to make paste or flour. They lived primarily in caves or rock shelters, storing hides, tools, and food, while moving from place to place to hunt game.

      Fremont Culture
      "…of what value are objects of a past people if we don't allow ourselves to be touched by them. They are alive. They have a voice. They remind us what it means to be human; that it is our nature to survive, to be resourceful, to be attentive to the world we live in."

      - Terry Tempest Williams from Exploring the Fremont

      Petroglyphs found along Utah Highway 24

      The Fremont Culture

      Fremont and ancestral Puebloan people began to incorporate farming into their hunter and gatherer lifestyles approximately 2,000 years ago. Petroglyph panels throughout the park depict ancient art and stories of these people who lived in the area from approximately 600-1300 common era (CE). Named for the Fremont River that flows through the park, evidence now shows that these people lived throughout Utah and adjacent areas of Idaho, Colorado and Nevada.

      The Fremont lived in pit houses (dug into the ground and covered with a brush roof) and natural rock shelters. Their social structure was likely composed of small, loosely organized bands consisting of several families. They were closely tied to nature and flexible, making frequent modifications in their life ways as social or environmental changes occurred.

      Deerskin moccasins from the Fremont Culture

      Anthropologists suggest that the Fremont were hunter-gatherers who supplemented their diet by farming, growing corn, beans and squash along the river bottoms. Edible native plants included pinyon nuts, rice grass and a variety of berries, nuts, bulbs, and tubers. Corn was ground into meal on a stone surface (metate) using a hand-held grinding stone (mano). Deer, bighorn sheep, rabbits, birds, fish and rodents were hunted using snares, nets, fishhooks, the Atlatl (spear-throwing stick) and the bow and arrow.

      Several artifacts are distinctive to the Fremont. A unique singular style of basketry, called one-rod-and-bundle, incorporated willow, yucca, milkweed and other native fibers. Pottery, mostly graywares, had smooth, polished surfaces or corrugated designs pinched into the clay. The Fremont made moccasins from the lower-leg hide of large animals, such as deer, bighorn sheep or bison. Dew claws were left on the soles, possibly to act as hobnails, providing extra traction on slippery surfaces.

      Pictographs (painted on rock surfaces) and petroglyphs (carved or pecked into the rock surface) depict people, animals and other shapes and forms on rock surfaces. Anthropomorphic (human-like) figures usually have trapezoidal shaped bodies with arms, legs and fingers. The figures are often elaborately decorated with headdresses, ear bobs, necklaces, clothing items and facial expressions. A wide variety of zoomorphic (animal-like) figures include bighorn sheep, deer, dogs, birds, snakes and lizards. Abstract designs, geometric shapes and handprints are also common. Designs may have recorded religious or mythological events, migrations, hunting trips, resource locations, travel routes, celestial information and other important knowledge.

      The Fremont moved in small groups, as clans, medicinal societies, or co-residence groups encountering other people and residing with them for periods of time. Gradually these groups merged and dispersed, repeating this process continually in a practice known as residential cycling. This reshuffling continued for thousands of years and coalesced into todays' tribal groups of Utes, Paiutes, Hopi, Navajo, and Zuni, continuing as European and American explorers came through Capitol Reef.

      History & Culture - Capitol Reef National Park

      The majority of the nearly 100 mi (160 km) long up-thrust formation called the Waterpocket Fold—a rocky spine extending from Thousand Lake Mountain to Lake Powell—is preserved within the park. Capitol Reef is the name of an especially rugged and spectacular segment of the Waterpocket Fold by the Fremont River.[4] The park was named for a line of cliffs of white Navajo Sandstone with dome formations—similar to the white domes often placed on capitol buildings—that run from the Fremont River to Pleasant Creek on the Waterpocket Fold. The local word reef refers to any rocky barrier to land travel, just as ocean reefs are barriers to sea travel.[5]
      Capitol Reef National Park - Wikipedia

      Oh man I really liked this one! There isn't a whole lot of spectacular scenic overlooks like this one shown here (this one is just a few hundred feet in from a parking area) but there is a great scenic drive where your looking up mostly.The trails offer super hiking where you almost really need to take a few to appreciate this park and to really see it.Full of Native American culture! One of the best of the best in the National Park System.A real gem.You need to go looking for it's secrets.Aside from the petroglyphs,almost everything else is kinda hidden but oh man,does it hold some highlights.
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